The Knowledge Resource for the World of Grain Handling and Processing Industry Operations

GEAPS 525: Management of Pests in Stored Grain

2020 course offerings:

Course Description: This course provides fundamental knowledge required to prevent and manage insect infestations using practical nonchemical and chemical methods. Students will learn about different insect pests associated with grain, methods and devices used in sampling, the overall value of sampling grain, preventive and responsive management techniques and proper use of grain protectant and fumigation.

Course Goals: GEAPS 525 aims to teach those involved in handling and storing grain basic skills that will enable them to make timely pest management decisions, while also protecting the quality of stored grain and the environment. By the end of this course students will be able to create and evaluate their own pest management plan.

Target Audience: Grain facility superintendents and managers; grain industry professionals with responsibilities relating to grain quality management, pest management, fumigation and protectants; students and others with a professional interest in managing insects in grain.


Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam, Professor, Kansas State University Department of Grain Science and Industry | Show Bio

Dr. Subramanyam has worked with K-State since 1996 and in higher education for over 20 years. His research experience includes management of insects using elevated temperatures, model environmental effects on insect development and survival and pesticide toxicology and resistance.

Thadd Bigler, VP Inland Division, Central States Enterprises LLC | Show Bio

Mr. Bigler entered the Stored Product Pest Control Industry in 1983 and has fumigated a variety of different sites, ships, barges, stored product storage facilities, etc. over the last 28 years. He provides training in the proper use of stored product insecticides and fumigants for several trade organizations as well as state sponsored recertification programs. He is employed by Central States Enterprises, LLC in Salina, KS as their Vice President of the Inland Division.

Jerry Heath, Product Manager and Staff Entomologist, The Industrial Fumigant Company LLC | Show Bio

Mr. Heath received a Bachelor of Science in entomology from Washington State University. As a product manager and entomologist at The Industrial Fumigant Company, he is involved with product marketing and technical services for the food processing and commodity industries. He has also worked on insect growth regulators and pheromone mating disruption products for stored grain pests.

The Course of Study

Week 1
Lecture 1 – Overview of Grain-Storage Structures
This lecture describes and illustrates: the diverse types of grain storage structures, both traditional and modern; issues related to insect infestation; and management assessment methods. Topics include reasons for storing grain, types of structures used for storing grain, advantages and limitations of the storage structures, losses due to insects in stored grain, loss assessment methods and why prevention of losses in grain is important.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

Lecture 2 – Economically Important Insects Associated with Stored Grain: Primary Feeders
This lecture covers the primary insect species associated with stored grain. Topics include: classification of insects as primary or feeders, natural habitats of stored product insects, and species-by-species descriptions including identification, biology, ecology, behavior and damage.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

GEAPS members can access this lecture for free in the GEAPS Knowledge Resource Center.

Week 2
Lecture 3 – Economically Important Insects Associated with Stored Grain: Secondary Feeders 
This lecture describes and illustrates the secondary insect species associated with stored grain. Topics include: feeding preferences of secondary insect species and species-by-species descriptions. Students will learn how an insect’s biology can be used for management.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

Lecture 4 – Devices for Sampling Insects in Stored Grain: Absolute and Relative Methods
This lecture outlines why sampling insects in stored grain is important, and describes methods for sampling grain insects. Topics include: goals and objectives of sampling insects in grain, advantages and limitations of absolute and relative methods of sampling, types of sampling information for insect detection and estimation, devices used for absolute estimates and utilizing absolute sampling information for pest management decision making.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

Week 3
Lecture 5 – Pest Management Basics and Concepts
This lecture covers basic pest management and outlines various methods used for managing insects in stored grain. Topics include the definition of a pest, the difference between control and management, pest management concepts, preventive versus responsive tactics, practical pest management methods for stored grain insects, stored grain managers’ perceptions of pest-management and resources on stored grain pest management practices.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

Lecture 6 – Preventive and Responsive Tactics for Managing Stored-Grain Insects
This lecture provides information on practical preventive tactics to minimize insect infestation in stored grain.  Students will understand why pest management is important, the primary foundation for a solid pest management program and some of the ways to prevent pest activity. Topics include recommended preventive and responsive tactics for empty structures and grain, descriptions of preventive and responsive tactics and the effectiveness and limitations of tactics.
Lecturer: Thadd Bigler

Week 4
Lecture 7 – Proper Use of Grain Protectants
In this lecture, students will learn about the practice of admixing various traditional and newer materials with stored grain to prevent insect infestations. Topics include: reasons for admixing, the definition of a grain protectant, attributes of an effective grain protectant, traditionally used and current grain protectants, formulations of grain protectants, grain protectant application issues (labeling), issues with insect resistance to protectants, and grain protectants and food safety (residues).
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam

Lecture 8 – Proper Use of Grain Fumigants
This lecture provides information on fumigants and the practice of fumigating stored grain to manage insect infestations. Topics covered include: definitions and examples of fumigants, attributes of an effective fumigant, old versus new types of fumigants available for use on grain, scenarios where fumigation can be used (bulk, bagged, cargoes, railcars, etc.), conditions affecting fumigation (sealing, weather, sorption/desorption, etc.) and insect resistance to fumigants.
Lecturer: Jerry Heath

Week 5
Lecture 9 – Fumigation Safety Considerations
This lecture covers how to properly use fumigants for applicator safety and for maximum efficacy against insect pests. Topics include: the importance of safety when using fumigants, fumigation labels and safety labeling, applicator safety vs. bystander safety, personal protective equipment (PPE) and their care, types of devices for monitoring grain fumigants, proper use of PPEs relative to gas readings, and unsafe versus safe fumigation practices.
Lecturer: Thadd Bigler

Lecture 10 – Integrated Management of Stored-Grain Insects
This lecture has students integrate information from readings and Power Point presentations to develop a hypothetical pest management plan to manage insects in stored grain. Topics include: the definition of a pest management plan, the definition of an integrated pest management plan, issues to consider when developing a pest management plan and evaluating a pest management plan.
Lecturer: Dr. Bhadriraju Subramanyam